The Interconnected Roles of PMLA, 2002 and FATF: Combating Laundering of Money & Countering Capitalizing the Terrorism

  • Shivani Meena and Celina
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  • Shivani Meena

    Pursued LL.M. at Rajasthan University, Jaipur, India

  • Celina

    Pursued B.A.LL.B. at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, India

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This research paper offers a comprehensive analysis of the clauses within the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 (PMLA), specifically in their harmony with international agreements and pacts designed to counter the laundering of money and the capitalizing the terrorism. Furthermore, it evaluates how Indian laws effectively contribute to worldwide efforts to combat financial offenses. Additionally, this research delves deeply into a meticulous examination of the modifications brought about by the Finance Act of 2019, which aimed to address uncertainties present in the prevailing PMLA provisions. The research recognizes India's increased focus on addressing money laundering and related offenses since the mid-2000s. Nonetheless, it highlights persistent legal challenges, such as those related to the threshold conditions for domestic predicate offenses, which continue to pose obstacles to the efficacy of the PMLA. The absence of convictions for money laundering under the PMLA further raises concerns regarding the regulatory framework's effectiveness. India's commitment to countering terrorism in all its manifestations is duly acknowledged, particularly evident in its proactive approach to investigating the financial dimensions of terrorism. However, the study underscores the inconsistent translation of this commitment into actual convictions and the establishment of well-defined case law. In response to the rising incidence of financial crimes and prominent cases, the Finance Act of 2019 aimed to strengthen existing provisions for monitoring and detecting suspicious financial transactions within the sector. The researcher utilizes the doctrinal research approach, employing an examination of numerous international agreements and legislations to assess the effectiveness of India's system for combating the laundering of money and capitalizing the terrorism. Primary sources of information include existing literature, encompassing books, journal articles, and newspaper reports. Empirical research was not conducted due to constraints on resources and time.


Research Paper


International Journal of Law Management and Humanities, Volume 6, Issue 5, Page 1393 - 1404


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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution -NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits remixing, adapting, and building upon the work for non-commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.


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