Globalisation has numerous elements, and one of the most important is its impact on labour. Though it has a global impact, it is even more relevant in a developing economy like India. Workers’ rights to social security are recognised in India’s Constitution and other welfare legislation. However, with the Government of India’s adoption of a new economic policy of liberalisation and privatisation, labour faces a new set of issues. They are posed primarily as a result of economic restructuring, which has impacted work relationships, as well as a growth in the unprotected informal labour force. This study aims to examine the new issues that have arisen in the workplace, the efficacy of existing labour-related social security measures in the current economic climate, and recommendations for ensuring workers’ entitlement to social security in the trade regime.