Delving into Environmental Protection with special emphasis on Groundwater Legislation in India

  • Anushri Joshi and Ambar Srivastava
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  • Anushri Joshi

    Student at Law College Dehradun, Uttaranchal University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India

  • Ambar Srrivastava

    Assistant Professor at Law College Dehradun, Uttaranchal University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India

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This Article delves into the intricate relationship between environmental protection and groundwater management in India, with a particular focus on the efficacy of the existing legislative framework. The analysis commences by establishing the critical role of groundwater as a vital natural resource and its precarious position due to over-exploitation and pollution. The discourse then dissects the legal architecture governing groundwater in India. This includes a meticulous examination of relevant statutes such as the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 , and the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. The potency of these enactments in safeguarding groundwater resources will be evaluated alongside their implementation mechanisms and any identified shortcomings. Furthermore, the paper incorporates the invaluable insights gleaned from pertinent case law. Landmark judgements rendered by the Supreme Court of India and various High Courts will be critically appraised to understand the judicial interpretation of groundwater legislation. This analysis will encompass pronouncements on issues like inter-state water disputes, regulatory control over industrial activities, and the polluter-pays principle in the context of groundwater contamination. By weaving together, a tapestry of legal analysis, statutory examination, and judicial precedent, this paper strives to offer a comprehensive understanding of India's groundwater governance framework. The ultimate objective is to identify potential gaps and propose practical recommendations for strengthening the legal regime to ensure the sustainable management and protection of this vital resource.


Research Paper


International Journal of Law Management and Humanities, Volume 7, Issue 3, Page 892 - 908


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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution -NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits remixing, adapting, and building upon the work for non-commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.


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