Children are the most vulnerable section of society and often fall prey to various forms of crimes such as sexual abuse, trafficking, kidnapping, murder, etc. The protection and welfare of children are the primary responsibility of the state and society. The Indian Constitution and various laws have provided for the rights and safeguards of children against crimes. The Child Welfare Committee (CWC) is a statutory body established under the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 to deal with the cases of children in need of care and protection. The Special Courts are designated courts under the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012 to try the offences of sexual violence against children. This paper aims to study the role and functioning of the CWC and the Special Courts in India in relation to the crimes against children. It also analyses the challenges and limitations faced by these institutions and suggests some measures to improve their effectiveness and efficiency.