A vast continent named Antarctic, encircles the South Pole with eternal ice and snow. Surrounded by ice floe, stormy seas and atrocious climate. The great altitude of this continent freezes the air to extremes, and its subsiding to ocean level through a moving ice sheet is known to give rise to the world’s strongest winds. Only 0.4% of this continent is ice-free, allowing a small footing for hardy animals and plants.
The uncovering and exploration of Antarctica were modelled by its remoteness and its bleak environment. Seclusion and Insulation control and dominate all those who visit. This reason amalgamation kept humans away for centuries. Keeping in mind the historic terms, the land exploration of Antarctica is contemporary, with a large portion of it being achieved during the 20th century. The better innovation, information and knowledge through these past years have provided more prominent access to the mainland, empowering extensive analysis and research, and the continuous control of the Antarctic by methodical and knowledge-based stations. In the middle of the century, stations were laid out and arrangements and plans were in progress for the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1957-1958, the first important and significant multi-country research program in Antarctica.
Also, during that time, regional positions had likewise been affirmed, however, disagreed and not concurred, making pressure that compromised the forthcoming and future scientific cooperation in the continent. This paper also highlights how the treaty has expanded over the years and the challenges and impediments faced by various states across the globe. This research paper also goes into studying that as mineral reserves and fisheries are getting depleted or exhausted elsewhere and the number of travelers and tourists keep on raising will the Antarctic Treaty and other conventions and Protocols at any point be amended or even set aside to accommodate advancements on the rearmost frontier.