This study attempts to chart the development of the status of India's scheduled castes from ancient times to the present day. Traditional caste hierarchy and the functionalism that goes with it are consistently maintained in modern Indian society. However, untouchability has largely been eradicated from Indian society, although horrific cases of caste discrimination still occur. However in India caste systems are persistent because of the country's political, economic, and social welfare systems' integration with them. This article has made an attempt to assess the different human development factors like literacy and socio economic status of the Scheduled Caste population in India. For this purpose, secondary data have been collected. The population- and literacy-related information has been obtained from the Census 2011 Report.