Future of Innovation and Commerce Confluence of Copyright in Audio Visual Trade Industry and the Underlying Issues

We are the inhabitants of the 21st Century, an era full of skyscrapers, global warming, and a generation endorsing the ‘Netflix and chill’ phenomenon. Trade incentivizes development and innovation. Intellectual property rights provide an impetus for innovation. Thus trade indirectly and constantly demands innovation so as to reach out to consumers in various forms. Audio- visual industry is one such form of trade facilitated innovation which has gathered importance in the recent past. With the advancement of technology, subject matters of copyright do not remain restrained in their country of origin. It is attributed to the development in the field of trade and commerce which has facilitated access to such audio-visual work around the globe. The audiovisual service sector has experienced drastic increase in the last few years. Technological developments have permitted greater quantities of content to be delivered and have given allowed customers to exercise more control over what they want to consume and when. Thus the confluence of trade and innovation creates a dynamic industry with worldwide consumers. The boom in consumers of Netflix, Amazon prime videos, Hotstar etc are to name a few. With rights come responsibilities and thus spring the issues of copyright while the audio-visual work travels trans-boundary. Up until today, practically every strategy that has been deployed to try to thwart unauthorized copying of digital audiovisual work has been unsuccessful or defeated by readily available applications that are developed almost as quickly as new methods of copy protection come online. The audio-visual sector of trade is a recent phenomena and thus requires all the more attention given its susceptibility to IP issues. This paper seeks to dwell into the concept, meaning and analysis of the issues with respect to copyright in the audio-visual industry.

Issues and Challenges of Organ Transplantation in India: A Scrutiny

As civilization progressed, man started fighting against various diseases both internal and external. Along with earlier herbal or natural medicines, man searched for inventing more preventive and curative medicines. Development in science and technology has brought in more and more advancements in the field of medicine and treatment. The transplantation of human organs can be considered as one of the wonders of medical science. Initially organs were transferred from deceased persons, but gradually it became possible to donate organs from living beings. There started issues of organ trade, organ selling, commercialization of organs etc. The issues of medical professionals being engaged in these practices, the unethical practices of hospitals etc. started getting public attention. The Government of India enacted Transplantation of Human Organs Act 1994 for regulating organ transplantations in India. The Act was amended in 2011 and the rules came into force in 2014. Most of the state governments also issued orders regulating various aspects of organs transplantations in accordance with the legislations. The Constitution of India guarantees right to life under Art. 21 and the Supreme Court and various High Courts have held in many cases that Art 21 also includes righ to health. This article examines the various facets of organ transplantation in India, the reasons of organ trade, legislations for preventing organ selling etc.